Near the end of the 10th century monks on the island of Lindisfarne fled from Viking invaders and eventually settled in the area on which the city of Durham now stands. A short time later the Normans invaded England and eventually took control of Durham from the Saxons. In 1072 The Normans built a castle in the city so they could keep its inhabitants in order. In 1093 the Norman Bishop William of Calais began a Cathedral. Today both castle and Cathedral form one of the most stunning city panoramas in Europe and have been given World Heritage Site status.